The city underwent rapid industrial growth starting in the early 1850s, especially in the textile and jute industries; this encouraged British companies to massively invest in infrastructure projects, which included telegraph connections and Howrah railway station.
The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new babu class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities.
In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty.
After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post.
In the early 19th century, the marshes surrounding the city were drained; the government area was laid out along the banks of the Hooghly River.
Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William between 17, was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture.
Oil Jetty with the help of Floating Crane /Pontoon Fitted Crane at Haldia Dock Complex(HDC), Kolkata Port Trust(West Bengal) by ...
(, 44 KB) Setting up of MIni Bulk Carrier Handling Facility in the upstream of 3rd.In the 19th century, the Bengal Renaissance brought about an increased sociocultural sophistication among city denizens.In 1883, Calcutta was host to the first national conference of the Indian National Association, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India.West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which also hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India.Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association.