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suggests that successive population bottlenecks occurred as our African ancestors migrated to other areas, leading to a decrease in genetic and phenotypic diversity.

Atkinson argues that these bottlenecks also affected culture and language, suggesting that the further away a particular language is from Africa, the fewer phonemes it contains.

From the perspective of signalling theory, the main obstacle to the evolution of language-like communication in nature is not a mechanistic one.

Rather, it is the fact that symbols—arbitrary associations of sounds or other perceptible forms with corresponding meanings—are unreliable and may well be false.

Many argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the origins of modern human behavior, but there is little agreement about the implications and directionality of this connection.When a cat purrs, the signal constitutes direct evidence of the animal's contented state.We trust the signal, not because the cat is inclined to be honest, but because it just cannot fake that sound.This property prevents utterances from being corroborated in the immediate "here" and "now".For this reason, language presupposes relatively high levels of mutual trust in order to become established over time as an evolutionarily stable strategy.

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