Unlike pneumonia, asthma and COPD typically present with wheezing, pulmonary edema presents with an abnormal electrocardiogram, cancer and bronchiectasis present with a cough of longer duration, and pulmonary emboli presents with acute onset sharp chest pain and shortness of breath.
Mild pneumonia should be differentiated from upper respiratory tract infection (URTI).
HCAP is sometimes called MCAP (medical care–associated pneumonia).
Hospital-acquired pneumonia is acquired in a hospital, specifically, pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after admission, which was not incubating at the time of admission.
Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system.
People with infectious pneumonia often have a productive cough, fever accompanied by shaking chills, shortness of breath, sharp or stabbing chest pain during deep breaths, and an increased rate of breathing.
Harsh breath sounds from the larger airways that are transmitted through the inflamed lung are termed bronchial breathing and are heard on auscultation with a stethoscope.
The term pneumonia is sometimes more broadly applied to any condition resulting in inflammation of the lungs (caused for example by autoimmune diseases, chemical burns or drug reactions); however, this inflammation is more accurately referred to as pneumonitis.Pneumonia is due to infections caused primarily by bacteria or viruses and less commonly by fungi and parasites.Although there are over 100 strains of infectious agents identified, only a few are responsible for the majority of the cases.However, for those with TLR6 variants, the risk of getting Legionnaires' disease is increased.Alcoholism is associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobic organisms, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; smoking facilitates the effects of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Legionella pneumophila.