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Later, as independence movements emerged across Africa, people from a variety of ethnic groups looked forward to independence and formed political parties. Independence was granted to the newly named Republic of Botswana in 1966. As a new nation, Botswana emphasized nonethnic citizenship and liberal democracy.

Diamonds were discovered soon after independence was granted, and the prudent and equitable use of their revenues has underwritten stability and the repeated reelection of the dominant political party. The domination of the country by the Tswana polities has persisted in a nonethnic government through the easy assumption of the predominance of Tswana people, language, and customs.

The term Setswana refers both to Tswana language, and to Tswana practices/culture, and there has been increasing resistance to the dominance of Setswana as national language by speakers of other languages in the country; language-revival movements have also emerged.

British administration in the twentieth century strengthened the role of the Tswana chiefs and the dominance of Tswana laws and customs over the country.

National political activity at first focused upon preventing the protectorate's annexation by South Africa.

Many urban residents today continue to maintain a house in a village of origin, and many men and some women also develop cattleposts.

Villages are distinguished from towns and cities by a significant engagement in agriculture by residents, and by the political structure of the settlement.

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