The Ikhwan(Brotherhood) is founded based on Wahhabism; it grows quickly and provides key support for Ibn Saud. Fifteen of the 19 hijackers involved in the September 11 attacks in the U. Government issues ID cards to women for the first time. From February–April, first nationwide municipal elections are held in Saudi Arabia. He also appoints the country’s first female minister. In July, a Saudi court issues verdicts in the first explicit terrorism trial for al-Qaeda militants in the country. In September, King Abdullah announces more rights for women, including the right to vote in elections in 2015, to run in municipal elections, and to be appointed to the Majlis al-Shura. confirms major sale of fighter jets to Saudi Arabia.Saudi Arabia leads an oil boycott against the Western nations that supported Israel in the October War against Egypt and Syria. In February, a stampede at the hajj pilgrimage leaves 251 dead. engineer working in Saudi Arabia is abducted and beheaded, and his execution is filmed and broadcast, causing revulsion in the U. In June, President Barack Obama visits Saudi Arabia as a part of a Middle East tour aimed at increasing U. Officials say 330 suspects were tried but do not specify how many were guilty. A woman is sentenced to 10 lashes after being found guilty of driving, the first time a legal punishment has been handed down for violation on the ban on women drivers. In October, Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz al Saud is named heir to the throne, after Crown Prince Sultan. In June, Crown Prince Nayef dies, succeeded by more liberal defense minister, the 76-year-old Prince Salman.The majority of women wear an abaya – a long cloak – and a head scarf.The face does not necessarily need to be covered, “much to the chagrin of some hardliners”, says The Economist.
Unlawful mixing will lead to criminal charges being brought against both parties, but women typically face harsher punishment.Although guardianship is not enshrined in written law, government officials, courts, businesses and individual Saudis generally act in accordance with it, meaning that, in practice, women need their guardian’s consent for any major activity, including travel, obtaining a passport, getting married or divorced and signing contracts.The system makes it “nearly impossible” for victims of domestic violence or sexual abuse to obtain legal redress because the police often insist that women and girls obtain their guardian's authorisation to file a complaint - even when the complaint is against the guardian, political scientist Elham Manea writes for Deutsche Welle.Other more unusual restrictions on women’s lives include entering a cemetery and reading an uncensored fashion magazine.However, adds Dowd, everything in Saudi Arabia “operates on a sliding scale, depending on who you are, whom you know, whom you ask, whom you’re with, and where you are”. “Saudi Arabia is the world’s most gender-segregated nation, but amid changes now under way, multiple generations of women are debating how to be truly modern and truly Saudi,” says National Geographic.